Farma

Yngling ØH
BGBIO 09.10.2020 kl 15:36 105209

Her er en samling forskningsrelaterte artikler som samlet sett indikerer at de vaksinene som er under utvikling i fase III i dag, kanskje ikke kommer til å virke mer enn noen måneder, eller at de kanskje til og med kun kommer til å virke mot den opprinnelige virusvarianten D614 (Original Wuhan strain), mens det i dag finnes veldig mange andre varianter, der D614G er den som øker mest og er den mest vanlige.
Det finnes mange andre sars-cov-2 varianter, blant annet V483G* som har vist seg langt mer smittsom, uten å være mindre dødelig (så langt). Denne finnes nå i Brasil, Midt-Østen, UK og i USA.
(Her er en god artikkel som viser virusvarianter som nå er mest utbredt i ulike verdensdeler https://www.news-medical.net/news/20200925/D614G-mutation-now-the-dominant-variant-in-the-global-COVID-19-pandemic.aspx)

Årsaken til at vaksinene kanskje ikke kommer til å være effektive skyldes blant annet at antistoffer ser ut til å forsvinne relativt raskt, samt at vaksinene som nå er i fase III ble ferdigstilt rundt mars måned 2020, og har derfor ikke inkludert mutasjoner som har kommet til senere, eller som ikke var vanlige på det tidspunktet.


En kanadisk studie ledet av forskere ved Temerty Faculty of Medicine ved Universtitetet i Toronto viser at antistoffer kun er effektive i 3 måneder fra man får covid-19 symptomer. IgA og IgM antistoffer falt kraftig, og forsvant etter 3 måneder. IgG antistoffer var stabile opp til 105 dager etter virussykdommen inntraff. Studien vurderte til og med dag 115 (studien stoppet der). De siste dagene fra dag 105 til dag 115 ble det observert signifikant reduksjon i IgG, men siden studien ikke pågikk lengre er det vanskelig å dra konklusjoner ut av dette.
IgA antistoffer er antagelig de viktigste antistoffene mot covid-19, og kan være såkalte "neutralizing antibodies".
Flere studier har funnet at antistoffer mot sars-cov-2 i seg selv ikke beskytter mot covid-19. Det er "neutralizing antibodies" som beskytter best.
"Indeed, IgA is an important mediator of protection against gastrointestinal viruses (38), is essential in achieving immunity against avian viruses (39), has been shown to contribute to the neutralizing antibody (nAb) response to SARS-CoV-2 (28)".
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/covid-19-antibodies-university-of-toronto-study-shows-that-sars-cov-2-coronavirus-antibodies-last-for-only-about-three-months-after-infection
https://immunology.sciencemag.org/content/5/52/eabe5511

En studie viste at barn kan ha IgG antistoffer mot SARS-COV-2, samtidig som de er smittet med SARS-COV-2.
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/breaking-covid-19-pediatrics-study-shows-that-kids-can-have-the-sars-cov-2-coronavirus-and-the-antibodies-simultaneously
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.08.06.20162446v1

"SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in two patients who have recovered from COVID-19"
"During the second admission, both patients showed increases in their IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 titers, and one patient also showed renewed reactivity for IgM anti-SARS-CoV-2. As both had recovered clinically and had negative throat swab viral RNA for 43–58 days before they became sick again with positive throat swab viral RNA together with an increase in IgG antibody (with one also showing IgM again), they were considered as having SARS-CoV-2 reinfection."
https://academic.oup.com/pcm/advance-article/doi/10.1093/pcmedi/pbaa031/5901533

ANTISTOFFER TILSVARENDE DET NIVÅ FORSØKSPERSONER FÅR ETTER BOOSTING DOSE (dose nr 2) MED COVID-19 VAKSINE HINDRET IKKE REINFEKSJON HOS PASIENT MED D614G strain.
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/must-read-study-involving-case-of-reinfection-questions-efficacy-of-covid-19-vaccines-under-development-or-trials-against-em

"Covid-19 Immunity short-lived for those who are asymtpomatic or had mild symptoms. Doubts raised about ability of vaccines to really work".
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/covid-19-immunity-short-lived-for-those-who-are-asymptomatic-or-had-mild-symptoms-doubts-raised-about-ability-of-vaccines-to-really-work
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.09.05.20187435v1.full.pdf

"Antibodies COVID-19: Another study shows that antibodies not effective in treating COVID-19 and warns of vaccines focusing only on spike proteins"
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/antibodies-covid-19-another-study-shows-that-antibodies-not-effective-in-treating-covid-19-and-warns-of-vaccines-focusing-only-on-spike-proteins
https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1008796

En artikkel som beskriver hvordan sars-cov-2 smitten spres i land av asymptomatiske pasienter.
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/the-frightening-tale-of-a-hypothetical-south-east-asian-country-where-4-percent-of-its-population-might-already-been-affected-by-milder-strains-of-sar

"COVID-19 Immunity: Study shows that protective immunity to current seasonal coronaviruses are short-lasting, SARS-COV-2 could be the same".
Studien går tilbake til data fra 1980-tallet til i dag, og ser på infeksjoner med coronavirus. Pasientene hadde 3-17 reinfeksjoner med coronavisu, og reinfeksjon skjedde fra 6-105 måneder. Reinfeksjoner ble hyppig observert etter 12 måneder.
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/covid-19-immunity-study-shows-that-protective-immunity-to-current-seasonal-coronaviruses-are-short-lasting,-sars-cov-2-could-be-the-same
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-1083-1

"COVID-19 herd immunity is impractical and disastrous according to new study plus emerging studies indicate immunity is short lived".
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/covid-19-herd-immunity-is-impractical-and-disastrous-according-to-new-study-plus-emerging-studies-indicate-immunity-is-short-lived
https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/09/21/2008087117

"Coronavirus latest: Experts concerned as reinfections occuring in shorter intervals, also new study shows antibodies in infected diminish in about 60 days".
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/coronavirus-latest-experts-concerned-as-reinfections-occurring-in-shorter-intervals,-also-new-study-shows-antibodies-in-infected-diminish-in-about-60-
https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciaa1436/5908892

"MUST READ! Study involving case of reinfection questions efficacy of covid-19 vaccines under development or trials against emerging mutated strains".
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/must-read-study-involving-case-of-reinfection-questions-efficacy-of-covid-19-vaccines-under-development-or-trials-against-emerging-mutated-strains

"BREAKING!! Covid-19 immunity: New study that is yet to be peer-reviewed says humans may never develop immunity against covid-19".
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/breaking-covid-19-immunity-new-study-that-is-yet-to-be-peer-reviewed-says-humans-may-never-develop-immunity-against-covid-19
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.13.20130252v1.full.pdf+html


Missed the cut:
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/covid-19-antibodies-new-york-university-scientist-discover-that-up-to-75-percent-of-recovered-covid-19-patients-have-low-neutralizing-antibody-titers
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/breaking-covid-19-re-infections-more-cases-of-documented-covid-19-re-infected-cases-emerging-first-hong-kong,-now-belgium-and-netherlands
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/covid-19-vaccine-researchers-identify-t-cell-epitopes-for-effective-vaccine-development
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/thailand-covid-19-news-6-new-imported-cases-of-which-3-are-reinfections-opening-of-phuket-to-foreigners-delayed,-phangnga-imposes-strict-measures-
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/rare-covid-19-antibody-development-in-cancer-patients-observed-in-german-study (Kun 6 av 77 smittede i en tysk studie hadde antistoffer).
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/india-covid-19-coronavirus-news-documented-reinfections-emerging-in-india,-vaccines-and-antibodies-being-questioned,-record-94,000-cases-in-24-hours
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/breaking-covid-19-research-mutated-sars-cov-2-spike-protein-variants-evade-neutralizing-antibodies-warning-of-emergence-of-antibody-resistant-variants
https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.07.21.214759v1.full.pdf
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/breaking-covid-19-reinfections-israeli-doctor-reinfected-with-sars-cov-2-just-12-weeks-after-recovering,-more-reinfections-appearing-globally
https://www.timesofisrael.com/israeli-doctor-diagnosed-with-virus-after-apparently-recovering-from-covid-19
https://www.publichealth.columbia.edu/public-health-now/news/risk-coronavirus-reinfection-remains-after-recovery
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.27.20082032v1

"Reinfections" i nyhetene:
https://www.sciencealert.com/35-year-study-of-coronavirus-reinfections-suggests-human-immunity-is-short-lived
https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2020/10/covid-survivors-may-have-four-months-of-protection/
LES DENNE: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/what-covid-19-reinfection-means-for-vaccines/
"The Kenya study on endemic human coronaviruses, however, offers evidence to the contrary that may turn out to be applicable to SARS-CoV-2. In some patients, it was found that high antibody levels actually potentiated infection rather than preventing or mitigating it"
https://bgr.com/2020/10/06/coronavirus-immunity-reinfection-cases-mount-second-wave/
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/oct/06/flurry-of-coronavirus-reinfections-leaves-scientists-puzzled
https://www.mlive.com/news/muskegon/2020/10/rise-of-coronavirus-in-nursing-homes-has-muskegon-county-probing-possible-reinfections.html


*V483G mutasjonen er motstandsdyktig mot antistoffer.
https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/v483g-mutation-warning-about-growing-prevalence-of-new-sars-cov-2-mutant-strain-v483g-that-is-antibody-resistant-and-even-more-infectious
Forøvrig spekuleres det i at dersom monoclonal antibodies fungerer (det Trump fikk), så kan prisen på hver behandling bli 6-8000 dollar.
Redigert 21.01.2021 kl 09:40

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